Chaudhary Charan Singh was an Indian politician and the fifth Prime Minister of the country. He used to be a strong leader of the farmers' voice, though he became the prime minister of India but his term was too short. Prior to becoming Prime Minister, he also worked as Home Minister of India and Deputy Prime Minister. He was also the Chief Minister of UP state twice and also assumed the charge of other ministries. He lived only for 5 months and a few days as the Prime Minister of the country and gave resignation even before proving the majority.
Chaudhary Charan Singh was born on December 23, 1902 in a middle-class farming family in Noorpur village in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. His family was a Jat background. His aunt Maharaja Nahar Singh made a special contribution in the first revolution of 1887. Maharaja Nahar Singh was a resident of Vallabhgarh, which is presently in Haryana. Maharaja Nahar Singh had been handed over to the gallows by the British government in Chandni Chowk in Delhi. Then, in order to keep Jwala's revolution intact against the British, the supporters of Maharaja Nahar Singh and Chaudhary Charan Singh's grandfather escaped in the eastern area of Bulandshahr district of Uttar Pradesh. Chaudhary Charan Singh received an academic environment in the family. They themselves also have an additional trend towards education. Chaudhary Char Singh, father of Chaudhary Charan Singh wanted that his son be educated and serve the nation.
Chaudhary Charan Singh's primary education took place in Noorpur and after that matriculation he was admitted to Government High School in Meerut. In 1923, Charan Singh graduated in science and two years later, in the year 1925, he passed the Post Graduate Examination in Arts. After this, he studied law from Agra University and after passing the law examination, he started prosecution in Ghaziabad in 1928. During his advocacy he was known for his honesty, cleanliness and dutifulness. Chaudhary Charan Singh accepted the same lawsuits in which the client's side seemed to be justified.
After the Lahore Convention of Congress (1929), he formed a Congress Committee in Ghaziabad and in 1930, during the Civil Disobedience Movement, breaking the 'salt law', Charan Singh was sentenced to 6 months' imprisonment. After being released from jail, he devoted himself completely in the freedom struggle of the country.
In the year 1937, at the age of 34, he was elected to the Vidhan Sabha from Chaproli (Baghpat) and presented a bill in the assembly to protect the rights of the farmers. This bill was related to the inversion of the crops produced by the farmers. After this, the bill was adopted by all the states of India.
In 1940, Charan Singh was arrested in 'Personal Satyagraha' by Gandhiji, after which he was released in October 1941. There was dissatisfaction throughout the country during 1942 and Mahatma Gandhi had called 'Do or Die' through the 'Quit India' movement. During this phase, Charan Singh went underground and started a secret revolutionary organization in Ghaziabad, Hapur, Meerut, Mawana, Sarathna, Bulandshahr etc. in villages. The police was lying behind Charan Singh and finally he was arrested. The British government sentenced them to one and a half year sentence. In the prison, he wrote a book entitled 'Manners'.
Chaudhary Charan Singh opposed economic reforms based on Nehru's Soviet method because he believed that cultivation of cooperative system could not be successful in India. Charan Singh, who had relations with a farmer's family, believed that the farmer's land could have progress only due to the right to land. It is believed that the opposition of Nehru's principles had its impact on political career.
After the country's independence, Charan Singh was elected to the state assembly by winning the Assembly elections in 1952, 1962 and 1967. In the Government of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant, they were made a 'Parliamentary Secretary'. In this role he discharged his responsibilities in departments like Revenue, Justice, Information, Medical and Health etc. In 1951, he was given the post of Cabinet Minister in the Uttar Pradesh Government under which he took over the responsibility of the Department of Justice and Information. In 1952, he was given the responsibility of revenue and agriculture department in the government of Doctor Sampurnananda. Charan Singh was also a farmer by nature, so he has been constantly trying for the interests of the farmers. When Chandrabhanu Gupta became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1960, he was given the Agriculture Ministry.
Charan Singh left Congress party in 1967 and established a new political party 'Indian Kranti Dal'. With the help of leaders like Raj Narayan and Ram Manohar Lohia, he formed a government in Uttar Pradesh and became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1967 and 1970.
In 1975, Indira Gandhi declared an emergency in the country and put all political opponents in jail including Charan Singh. Indira Gandhi was defeated in the elections of 1977, which happened after the Emergency and under the leadership of Morarji Desai, the government of Janta Party was formed. Charan Singh was the Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister in this Government.
Morarji Desai's government fell due to mutual discord in the Janata Party, after which Phani Singh took oath as prime minister on July 28, 1979 with the support of Congress and CPI. President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy gave him time till August 20 to prove his majority, but Indira Gandhi withdrew support on August 19, thus without facing even a single parliament, Chaudhary Charan Singh resigned from the post of Prime Minister.
Charan Singh was married to Gayatri Devi in 1929. Five of them were born.